The “domino theory” about earthquakes is being rejected

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The well-known “domino theory” about major earthquakes and their possible correlation is being called into question, following new scientific research.

This theory has suggested a possible “communication” between the major earthquakes that have occurred in recent years, despite the large distances between them. Particularly “violent” and devastating earthquakes had occurred in 2004 in Sumatra, in ’10 in Haiti, and a year later in Japan.

However, scientific research conducted by seismologists Tom Parsons and Eric Geist of the US Geological Survey comes to refute this theory. On the contrary, he concludes that these catastrophic events are accidental and cannot be mutually impacted over such long distances.

In order to examine the possibility that earthquakes are related, scientists studied two groups of large earthquakes. The most recent included those occurring after 2004 and others in the 1960s, when many powerful successive earthquakes again occurred in various parts of the world.

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To see if the accumulation of so many earthquakes in the 1960s was accidental or not, and in recent years, the two geologists recorded the time interval between the largest earthquakes (over 8.3 Richter) during the for the last 100 years and compared it with a simulated time series of random earthquakes. They eventually came to the conclusion that large earthquakes occur at random times and do not appear to be interrelated at all.

And how come so many powerful earthquakes are accidental, as they coincide over time? “Yes, it seems strange, but it is not something one would expect from a random process in which the phenomenon of clustering is quite typical. If e.g. no one plays crown-letters many times, the result is not a smooth alternation between crowns and letters, but many crowns or many letters can appear in a row, ”Parsons said.

This, they say, also has a dangerous aspect: that the danger that threatens humanity from mega-earthquakes is statistically the same at any time, since the likelihood of a subsequent catastrophic earthquake does not depend on whether an equally powerful earthquake has recently occurred. another part of the Earth.

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On the other hand, according to American geologists, the most optimistic aspect of their study is that since the mega-earthquakes have been accidental and have already happened to many of them in recent years at close intervals, the likelihood of such a recurrence is relatively low. similar accumulation of disasters in the near future.

However, previous research has shown that large earthquakes do indeed appear to have some impact over longer distances, but without gaining much power. “After major earthquakes, we see a lot of micro-earthquakes all over the planet, but for some reason they don’t seem to evolve into major earthquakes,” Parsons said.

The finding of earthquakes, however, is difficult to predict, as some researchers had hoped that any global “communication” of mega-earthquakes would make it possible to predict a similar event.

However, scientists still disagree to what extent future earthquakes can be predicted. Some insist that this geological phenomenon is ultimately chaotic and predictable, while others have not stopped exploring new ways of predicting more effective earthquakes.

The research by Tom Parsons and Eric Gaist was published in the journal Seismic Society of America.

3D printer produces “live” materials with bacteria ink

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Progress in 3D printers is continuous and in a few years there will probably be almost nothing that can be produced by such a device. Two new innovations are coming to prove it.

In Europe researchers at the University of Zurich have presented a 3-D printer that works with living, non-lifeless materials such as plastic or metal, using bacteria-containing ink to produce complex functional “living” materials. Across the Atlantic, researchers at the US MIT University have created a machine that has 10 times faster 3D printing speed than anyone else on the market.

The Swiss printer, presented in the journal Science Advances, was developed by researchers led by Professor Andre Stundart, director of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology’s (ANT) Complex Materials Laboratory. Bacteria-containing “ink” allows the printing of tiny biochemical “factories”, each with different properties, depending on what kind of bacteria are used each time.

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Up to four different inks, containing different bacteria respectively, can be used simultaneously to produce articles with a variety of properties. Each ink is a mixture consisting of a biocompatible hydrogel (of hyaluronic acid), chains of sugar molecules, silica and bacteria. The ink has a texture reminiscent of toothpaste and was christened “Flink” (Functional living ink), that is, “functional live ink” and can print any shape.

At present, it remains unclear how long the bacteria can live in the printed articles, but researchers assume they can do so for a long time because they are scarce. They also emphasized that the bacteria used are harmless and the living ink absolutely safe. Such bacterial inks may in the future find various medical, biotechnological and other practical applications, e.g. to create elastic skin grafts, to print bacteria-containing sensors and thus be able to detect toxins in the water. They can also be used to develop bio-filters that will clean oil spills and other sources of pollution.

Two technical hurdles to overcome are to increase the current slow printing rate and to enable bio-printing on a mass scale.

On average, a commercial 3-D printer prints objects at a speed of about 20 cubic centimeters per hour. These common printers take about an hour to produce a few Lego-type bricks.

The new American printer does not take more than ten minutes to do the same job, thanks to its sophisticated print head. It has a built-in laser that heats and melts the material, allowing it to flow faster through the printer nozzles.

Researchers, led by Associate Professor Anastasios John Hart of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Department of Mechanical Engineering, who published the relevant issue in Additive Manufacturing magazine, showed a few minutes to each new publisher’s possibilities. glasses frame, a conical sprocket and a miniature replica of the MIT dome.

Mars ‘threatened’ by comet collision

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A comet is about to face Mars, as the celestial body is not likely to fall on it.

The potential “enemy” bears the name C / 2013 A1, and was discovered by the Australian Spring Observatory.

Researchers found photos of the comet since last December. The images had been taken by an observatory in Arizona, USA, but were not then understood. However, they were used by astrophysicists to calculate its orbit around the Sun.

In line with initial estimates, however, the comet is not going to collide with the planet. Instead, it is estimated that it will travel some 900,000 kilometers from its surface. This distance is safe, considering that the asteroid 2012 DA14 crossed the Earth in just 34,400 km.

However, these calculations have a significant margin of error since existing data are inadequate. So it is not excluded that the comet would hit Mars.

Whatever happens eventually, observers from Earth will have the opportunity to see the comet’s course. In addition, it is not excluded that the “red planet” research rovers are able to photograph the comet’s passage.

University of London puts an end to burgers

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An end for hamburgers and macaroni bolognese for students at Goldmiths University in London: beef will no longer be sold at this educational institution that intends to do so in the fight against climate change.

The ban on the sale of all beef products will come into effect at all university stores since the students’ return in September, the university’s management said in the south-east of the British capital, at a time when cattle farming is accused of high water consumption and deforestation.

Targeting its zero contribution to CO2 emissions by 2025, the university will also impose a payment of 10 pence (about 10 cents) for the purchase of non-reusable plastic bottles and cups.

It is impossible to ignore the increasingly pressing global demand for organizations to take their responsibilities seriously to stop climate change,” explained Goldsmith’s new director, who took office this month.

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The staff and students (…) are determined to contribute to the radical change that needs to be made to drastically reduce our carbon footprint as quickly as possible.

In a report released last week, a panel of UN climate experts IPCC / Giec stresses that changing eating habits and food production is one of the drivers of the fight against global warming, without suggesting the passage. on a vegetarian or vegan diet.

The National Farmers’ Union (NFU) has denounced a “too simplistic approach” on the part of Goldsmiths and urged private or public organizations, including universities, to support the British farm and livestock sector. “The main problem is the lack of (…) distinction between British beef and elk produced elsewhere,” union vice president Stuart Roberts added in a statement.

The British beef carbon footprint is “2.5 times lower than the world average,” he said.

Other UK universities have already taken steps to reduce meat consumption, notably Cambridge.

Serious discussions in the US for Trump’s amendment for the Endangered Species Act

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The administration of US President Donald Trump has issued a highly controversial amendment to the Endangered Species Act, which is used to protect the country’s most endangered plants and animals.

The Endangered Species Act, signed by Republican President Richard Nixon in 1973, protects more than 1,600 species of plants and animals today, including crediting the rescue of the California condor, the Florida manat, Whale and the Grizzly Bear.

Driu Caputo, head of environmental law firm Earthjustice, described the changes as “an attempt to destroy the protection of endangered or threatened species”.

The Trump administration’s new directives amended the law to allow information on the economic impact of adding a species to the list of protected species.

Until now, decisions regarding wildlife management can only be based on science and “not concerned with the potential financial or other impact” of them.

The government has also made changes that critics say allow threats such as climate change to be ignored.

The Trump government’s revisions, which will take effect in 30 days, will change the law, but broader, backed by Republican amendments that have failed to pass through Congress.

“The completed reviews are exactly in line with the president’s mandate to lighten the regulatory burden on the American people without sacrificing our species protection and recovery goals,” said Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross.

The changes were announced by the US Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the US Department of Commerce’s National Maritime Fisheries Service (NMFS).

The change in US environmental regulations comes at a time when UN scientists are warning that about one million plant and animal species face an immediate threat of extinction worldwide due to human activity.

Over 2,000 species are on the list of endangered or threatened species in the US.

The announcement sparked outrage by environmental activists and Democratic lawmakers. Chuck Sumer, the Democratic leader in the Senate, called the change “a slap in the face for those struggling to cope with the climate crisis”.

“Once again, the Trump administration puts the profits of the big oil companies above the health and safety of our planet and future generations,” Sumer underlined.

Are you a traveler or tourist?

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Traveler or tourist? Some may think they are the same, but the differences are great! Because according to Newton, a traveler on the go is always on the go, and a tourist visits a place just to ‘erase’ it from his list of options.

We have found the 20 reasons that will rank you at the traveler level. How many of them do you see yourself in?

1. You dream of your next trip every moment of the day, even on the road to work.

2. You like to travel alone.

3. You love travel so much that you are a professional traveler.

4. You may feel nostalgic for home when traveling far away, but under no circumstances would you choose to dine at the nearest international fast-food chain restaurant.

5. You know that all money is not like your home country, so you would never refer to a foreign currency as “virtual money”.

6. You are not planning trips based on rest and fun. After all, what is an adventure without a trip?

7. You find maps hidden everywhere, in your wallet, in your drawer, even among your clothes.

8. The cover photo on your facebook page shows your latest travel destination.

9. You have a special application on your mobile that shows you the time and time of many cities in the world.

10. You know how to say hello, goodbye and thank you in many languages.

11. Refer to international airports with their code name.

12. Passport is your favorite accessory.

13. The photos of your friends on Instagram, depicting beaches, do not fit your concept of escape.

14. Monthly expenses include an amount for your next trip.

15. The goals for each new year include the destinations you want to visit.

16. Your friends advise you when making a suitcase.

17. When not choosing a trip, depending on whether you have been back.

18. Do you know how to save time on luggage check at the airport?

19. You are spontaneous.

20. Enjoy every moment of the journey and look for the hidden secrets of each destination.

Traveler or tourist? Some may think they are the same, but the differences are great!

NASA sent a 13-billion-mile signal into space and … got a response

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At a time when we do not occasionally have a signal here on Earth, NASA has been able to send a pulse to infinite distances and actually get a response.

It was not the beginning of a new friendship with an extraterrestrial culture, but a communication with Voyager 1, the only human creation that has reached so far in outer space, on the outskirts of our solar system.

Both Voyager 1 and his brother, Voyager 2, travel to the Universe carrying a small American flag as well as the infamous “Golden Record”, a ark of human covenant with sounds and images.

The US Space Agency was worried about some Voyager 1 propellers, whose operation has deteriorated, and said to roll a blind spot. To try to communicate with the backup, that is, by sending pulses of communication to something that has been working since 1980, and even in the inhospitable conditions of space. And he finally got the answer, as the propellers were activated!

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According to a NASA statement, Suzanne Dodd, director of the Voyager team at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: “With these propellers that remain operational despite their 37 years of no use, we can extend the life of the Voyager 1 spacecraft by two with three years.

Although it was essentially intercom, the fact that a pulse was sent so far and made things awake from a 37-year sleep was considered a triumph. And in terms of technology 1980.

 

Bill Gates will build the first “smart city”

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The whole city will be set up by Bill Gates in the Arizona area, which will also be a pioneer of its kind as it will be an entirely ‘smart city’. Bill Gates through a real estate investment firm he owns, recently bought a giant plot of land in Arizona for $ 80 million to build this “smart city”.

Arizona-based Belmont Partners, one of Gates’ investment companies, purchased about 25,000 acres of land in Tonopa, about 50 miles west of Phoenix, to create a “smart city”, called Belmont , according to FOX News, citing KPNX TV station.

Ronald Sott of the Arizona Technology Board said the land acquired by Gates is in good standing, in part because of the recently-launched highway I-11, which crosses Belmond and is expected to connects it to Las Vegas. “Bill Gates is known for his innovation and is now coming to Arizona.At last, Arizona will be recognized as a place of innovation.

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Belmont will create a community of the future, with a communications and infrastructure system that will incorporate state-of-the-art technology around high-speed digital networks, data centers, new production technologies and distribution models, autonomous vehicles and autonomous accounting hubs,” a press release said, according to KPNX. A model city will be built on a flexible infrastructure model, Belmont Properties says.

The “smart city” is reportedly to include an area of ​​80,000 homes, two square kilometers of public schools and land for offices, commercial buildings and retail stores.

They made a third eye on a beetle

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Scientists have made a third eye in a beetle in the laboratory – with appropriate genetic interventions – the aim of better studying the biological mechanisms through which it is possible to create in nature new complex features or old features in new parts of the body.

The third eye was made by researchers from the University of Indiana’s Department of Biology, led by Professor Harmon Mojek, who published the paper in the journal National Academy of Sciences of the United States (PNAS).

A similar genetic experiment had been preceded (to understand how the head develops), which had led to the accidental creation of a third eye. This time, however, the creation of the third eye became intentional and directed.

These organs are called “ectopic” because they grow in the wrong part of the body. Initial studies of flies had led to the creation of eyes on their wings or legs. Those eyes never functioned like normal eyes, but this time the eye in the center of the beetle’s face looks normal.

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The tiny scales that weigh a single living cell

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A tiny scale capable of weighing a single living cell quickly and easily created scientists in Switzerland.

The device can calculate the slightest change in the weight of a cell in real time, in milliseconds and with a precision of trillions of grams.

Until today it was impossible to measure the weight of the basic units of life and how it changes over time, because there was no proper measuring tool.

The breakthrough comes from researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ZTE) in Zurich, led by biophysics professor Daniel Miller, who published in the journal Nature.

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Laser measurements are used to measure the subtle movements of the cell’s oscillation. The differences between two different measurements allow the mass to be calculated. The displays appear on a computer screen and the weighing can take hours or even days.

The scales can be combined with a fluorescence microscope, allowing scientists to observe and record the biochemical processes inside the cell and how they affect its weight.

Observations so far show that every second the weight of a living cell – usually weighing two to three nanograms (billionths of a gram) – is constantly fluctuating, from 1% to 4%, which stops only with the death of the cell. No one had ever seen such a thing.

The scales may in future help study the pathological mechanisms within a sick cell or the effects of a new drug on the cell. In addition to the field of biomedicine, researchers in the field of new materials can utilize the new device to weigh nanoparticles.

The nanosecond will be manufactured by the Swiss company Nanosurf AG, which holds the relevant technology patent.

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